I found that prior economic literature had, for the most part, failed to distinguish between productivity and efficiency. So I wrote, in part,
For those CEOs and senior executives who can't think for themselves, it will sound very seductive. It reminds me of something Bob Gach, a partner at Andersen Consulting years ago when I worked there, used to say. He didn't like Morgan Stanley, his lead client, very much. He said they were a bad client because they knew too much. Ideally, he contended, a client had to be smart enough to know they needed help, but, unlike the old Salomon, Goldman or Morgan Stanley, not so smart as to know they could do most of the job themselves. That probably also describes the ideal McKinsey client.